A condition where brain function deteriorates through progressive atrophy of brain tissue, characterised by amyloid (a complex protein) plaque formation and neurofibrillary (essentially nerve fibres/filaments) tangles.
The substance being measured in an assay. In the present context this will be in a sample taken from a patient such as blood or urine, and its measurement will aid the diagnosis or monitoring of a disease or its treatment.
A biological entity produced by the body's immune system in response to the introduction of an antigen. This is part of the body's normal mechanism for protecting itself against infection.
A test to determine the concentration of a substance.
The hardening of arteries and the narrowing of the space available for blood flow, by the formation of fatty deposits (or atheroma) on the inside walls of the blood vessels.
A disease where the body's immune system is targeted against its own tissues. In such situations the body produces antibodies to specific body proteins/structures, such as anti-CCP against naturally occurring cyclic citrullinated peptides, or anti-Tg and anti-TPO against substances found in thyroid tissue.
Brain or beta natriuretic peptide, a substance that is elevated in the blood stream in patients with chronic heart failure, and is fast becoming the test of choice for definitive diagnosis of this common condition of the elderly.
The vitamin B12 molecule, which cannot be synthesised by animals or plants and thus has to come from the diet or supplementation.
(CRP) C-reactive Protein
Analyte which distinguishes a viral from a bacterial infection. This is an acute phase protein associated with the inflammatory process. It is released into the bloodstream in adverse situations and binds to toxins and bacteria.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
A molecule, generally a protein, that facilitates or speeds up a specific biological reaction.
Food & Drug Administration, the regulatory body in the USA for drugs and medical devices, including in vitro diagnostics.
A marker of diabetic control, reflecting the blood glucose concentrations over a 2-3 month period (associated with the haemoglobin in red blood cells, which have a life of about 120 days). Often referred to as HbA1c, as the most common form of glycated haemoglobin.
Analyte which is the biologically active part of the vitamin B12 molecule, cobalamin, as it is transported in the bloodstream. Branded as Active-B12.
An amino acid, one of the building blocks of protein. High levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and other conditions of ill health.
High pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography.
The condition of elevated homocysteine blood/urine levels.
A kit that uses the antigen-antibody reaction as part of the measurement procedure.
Used to designate a test performed outside the body (literally in glass or a test tube).
Any substance whose presence or level of body fluids is measured for diagnostic or monitoring purposes.
A condition where brain function is compromised, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Original equipment manufacturer. This is used to describe an arrangement where one company manufactures products for another under the latter's label.
Point of Care
Testing performed in the presence or close proximity of a patient, allowing a healthcare professional to obtain quick results to facilitate a better informed decision on patient management. Often called near patient testing.
A chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune origin that causes pain, stiffness and swelling around the joints, with joint destruction and functional disability.
The accuracy of a test in terms of its ability to detect a positive result or the likelihood of a negative result being correct.
The accuracy of a test in terms of the number of false positives, or the likelihood of a positive result being correct.
Where a diagnostic test is used to help determine treatment.
A guideline for therapy linked to information on a number of parameters and a decision tree.
A pioneering organisation focused on the development and manufacturing of important and innovative in vitro diagnostic tests for use in clinical laboratories.
As a general marker of overall health status, few tests carry greater predictive weight than Homocysteine. The amount of Homocysteine in your blood is one of the best independent indicators of how healthy you are.